JavaScript: The React Parts

Asynchronous JS

Due to its single-thread nature (meaning only one process that run at one time), JavaScript requires asynchronous programming to handle operations that may take some time, i.e. making network calls, read files etc.

Asynchronous Programming with Callback

Let's see the simplest example of asynchronous programming: setTimeout.


The code above will log "Hi" to the console after 1 second (1000 miliseconds).

How it works is by passing down a callback function, and the callback function will be called later.

Now assume we use an utility function ajax that allows us to make API calls.


result will be undefined because ajax runs asynchronously.

To get the result of the ajax call, we need to pass callback to ajax:


In both cases (setTimeout and ajax), asynchronous function requires a callback function because we not sure when the data will be ready, therefore we pass them a callback so they can call it at the moment it's ready.

Error Handling for Asynchronous Programming with Callback

How do you handle error for asynchronous code?

Let's see an example:


Our try...catch clause actually not able the catch the error. In order to catch error in asynchronous function, the asynchronous function has to use either of the following approach:

  • accepts an error callback that will be invoked when error happens:

  • pass down error as first parameter to callback when error happens, else pass down first parameter as null. This style is known as error first callback.


First approach is popular among frontend libraries, e.g. jQuery, while the second approach is popular among NodeJS libraries.

Problem with Asynchronous Programming with Callback

Callback function are fine, but it starts to get hard to understand once you have nested callback.


This nested callbacks are known as "callback hell", and it's usually considered as bad code because it's harder to understand and reason about the code flow.

Introducing Promise: Future Value & Event Completion

JavaScript introduces Promise, a new way for us to write asynchronous code.

Before I show you the code, I would like to introduce you to two ways to think about Promise: Future Value & Event Completion.

Promise as Future Value

Imagine when you go to a crowded McDonals and order a McChicken. You hand over the cashier RM 6.

By placing the order and make the payment, you've made a request for a value back (the McChicken).

However, often the McChicken is not available immediately. The cashier will hand you something to represent the McChicken a receipt.

By holding the receipt with an order number, the cashier will call your number later and you will be able to get your McChicken.

There is something great about this system, because both you and the cashier doesn't need to staring at each other blankly while the kitchen is preparing your McChicken. He can serve other customers, while you can stand aside and talk to your friend.

Promise is like the receipt. When you call a function that need to perform something asynchronous, it will returns you a Promise (a future value). Using the Promise, you can then use it to do something else once that future value is available.

Note that there is two possible outcomes of waiting for the McChicken: the cashier could serve you the McChicken as promised (the success scenario) or he could tell you that McChicken is sold out and you have to either order something else or cancel the order. Promise has similar mechanism as well.

Let see an example.


getExamResult is a function that will generate a random number after one second. Because it's asynchronous, therefore we use the callback style to get the value it generates later.

Note: This example may seems like a dumb example, but you can imagine getExamResult as a function that would make a network call to an API to retrieve some data.

Below is the version of getExamResult that use Promise:


Instead of accepting a callback as parameter, now getExamResult will returns a Promise by using the Promise constructor.

  • Promise constructor accepts a function, which will receives two parameters, fulfill and reject. Both of them are functions; you call fulfill when your asynchronous operation complete successfully or call reject when your operation encounter error. We will talk about reject slightly later in this lesson.
  • You can pass a variable to fulfill. If you need to pass multiple values, you need to wrap them as an object.

To get notified when a Promise complete, you call the then method on the Promise object. The function you provide will receive the value that is passed to fulfill call.

  • You can call then method multiple times to perform multiple response after the Promise complete, and they will be called in the sequence they call the then method.
examResultPromise.then(marks => {
if (marks > 50) {
console.log('Mum I did it!');
examResultPromise.then(marks => {
if (marks > 80) {

Assigning a promise to a variable and then call then method is only needed if you need to call the then method multiple times. If you only need to call it once, a more common pattern is to call it right after the asynchronous function.

getExamResult().then(marks => {
if (marks > 50) {
console.log(`Congratulation! You passed with the marks ${marks}!`);
} else {
console.log('You fail :(');


Rewrite the following functions that use callback style to use Promise:


Promise as Event Completion

A single Promise can be treated as a future value. There is another way to look at the resolution of a Promise: as a control-flow mechanism, a this then that in an asynchronous operation.

Let imagine a function callBoss that will perform some task. We don't know about what callBoss actually do, and we don't really care in this context. We just need to know after callBoss, we need to callMum and finally callWife.

Let's see how this could be achieve with callback:


To do it with Promise:


Asynchronous Programming with Promise

Error Handling in Promise

reject and .catch

Coordinating Multiple Promises



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