Test Framework

What you'll learn

  • understand the concept of test runner by writing a simple version from scratch
  • understand the concept of assertion by writing a simple version from scratch

Before we dive into how to write a test, let's discuss what tools are required for us to have automated tests.

Test Runner

The first tool that we need is test runner. A test runner is a uility that allows you to declare your test, which will be executed and the result of the test will be displayed.

Consider the following code:

js
const add = (a, b) => a + b;

Let's write a test for it. What is a test? A test is a piece of code that throws error when your code does not behave as expected.

js
const add = (a, b) => a + b;
function testAdd() {
const result = add(1, 2);
const expected = 3;
if (result !== expected) {
throw new Error(`${result} is not equal to ${expected}`);
}
}
function testAddMinus() {
const result = add(100, -50);
const expected = 50;
if (result !== expected) {
throw new Error(`${result} is not equal to ${expected}`);
}
}
try {
testAdd();
console.log('✔ test pass');
} catch (e) {
console.error('❌ test fail');
console.error(e);
}
try {
testAddMinus();
console.log('✔ test pass');
} catch (e) {
console.error('❌ test fail');
console.error(e);
}

As you may already realize, the message now is not very helpful, and there is many duplication in our code, let's create a utility test function:

js
const add = (a, b) => a + b;
function test(testName, executeTest) {
try {
executeTest();
console.log(`${testName}`);
} catch (e) {
console.error(`${testName}`);
console.error(e);
}
}
test('add 1 and 2 equals 3', () => {
const result = add(1, 2);
const expected = 3;
if (result !== expected) {
throw new Error(`${result} is not equal to ${expected}`);
}
});
test('add 100 and -50 equals 50', () => {
const result = add(100, -50);
const expected = 50;
if (result !== expected) {
throw new Error(`${result} is not equal to ${expected}`);
}
});

The test utility function allows us to declare a test, which will be executed and log the result to console.

Assertion

Note that we still have some duplication of the result and expected, we can write a expect utility function to make it more readable:

js
const add = (a, b) => a + b;
function test(testName, executeTest) {
try {
executeTest();
console.log(`${testName}`);
} catch (e) {
console.error(`${testName}`);
console.error(e);
}
}
function expect(result) {
return {
toBe(expected) {
if (result !== expected) {
throw new Error(`${result} is not equal to ${expected}`);
}
},
};
}
test('add 1 and 2 equals 3', () => {
expect(add(1, 2)).toBe(3);
});
test('add 100 and -50 equals 50', () => {
expect(add(100, -50)).toBe(50);
});

The expect utility that we have just created is known as assertion utility. An assertion utility helps us to make comparison and throw error when the comparisons is not expected.

Next Step

Test runner and assertion utility are already included as part of Jest. We'll use Jest to write tests for our application in next section.

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